Table of Contents




Fig. 1. Health factors in BC forests

Major forest health factor groupings

Tree species & biogeoclimatic zones

Forest health factor codes

TABLE 1. Commercial tree species
TABLE 2. Biogeoclimatic zones
TABLE 3. FHF field codes
TABLE 4. FHF incidences in BGC zones


Major info sources for ID of FHFs
TABLE 5. Symptoms of FHFs
TABLE 6. Wood damaging insects

Fig. 2. Wood boring beetles


Management responsibilities

The new FRPA

Defined Forest Area Management

Annual surveys of frst health

Bark beetle management

Use of pesticides


General references

Additional internet resources





General references

Agrios, G.N. 1988. Plant Pathology . 3rd Ed. Academic Press. The standard North American Plant Pathology text. The emphasis is on agricultural crops. Presents the current understanding of all aspects of plant diseases.

Allen, E., Morrison, D. and Wallis, G. 1996. Common tree diseases of British Columbia. Nat. Res. Canada, Can. For. Serv., Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, B.C.

Boyce, J.S. 1967. Forest Pathology . 3rd Ed. McGraw-Hill. This is the last edition of the old standard Forest Pathology text, with good descriptions of the diseases of western coniferous forests.

Bega, B.V. 1987. Diseases of Pacific Coast Conifers. USDA For. Serv., Pacific S. W. For. & Range Expt. Sta. Agric. Hbk. # 521.

Doliner, L.H. and J.H. Borden. 1984. PesTerms: A glossary of Forest Pest Management Terms. Pest management Report No. 3. B.C. Ministry of Forests. 34 pp.

Edmonds, R.L., Agee, J.K. and Gara R.I. 2000. Forest Health and Protection . McGraw-Hill. - A good new text.

Forest Pest Leaflet Series. Pacific Forestry Centre, Canadian Forest Service, Natural Resources Canada/ Forestry Canada. Forest Pest Leaflets are a series of about eighty short but detailed publications dealing with important insects, tree diseases, and other forest health factors. PDF versions of most of the FPLs are available online, at:
1. HForest- under “Species by: Common Name” or “Species by: Scientific Name”. See:
2. the PFC Online Bookstore- select the “search” option, then enter “Forest Pest” into the “series and volume” field. Available at:

Forest Practices Code Establishment to Free Growing Guidebooks. B.C. Ministry of Forests. Version 2.3 of Cariboo Forest Region (2002), or versions 2.2 of Kamloops, Nelson, Prince George, Prince Rupert, or Vancouver Forest Regions (2000), are available for download at:

Furniss, R.L. and Carolin, V.M. 1977. Western Forest Insects. USDA For. Serv. Misc. Pub. #1339. 654 pp.

Hedlin, A.F. 1974. Cone and seed insects of British Columbia. Envir. Can., Can. For. Serv., Rep. # BC-X-90. 63pp.

Hedlin, A.F., Yates, H.O., Tovar, D.C., Ebel, B.H., Koerber, T.W., Merkel, E.P. 1980. Cone and seed insects of North American conifers. Envir. Can., Can. For. Serv. 122 pp.

Hepting, G.H. 1971. Diseases of forest and shade trees of the U.S. USDA For. Serv., Agri. HBK. # 386.

Hiratsuka, Y. 1987. Forest Tree Diseases of the Prairie Provinces. Information Report NOR-X-286, Northern Forestry Centre, CFS, Edmonton, Alta. 126 pp.

Ives, W.G.H. and H.R. Wong. 1988. Tree and shrub insects in the prairie provinces. Information Report NOR-X-292, Northern Forestry Centre, CFS, Edmonton, Alta. 327 pp.

Manion, P.D. 1991. Tree Disease Concepts . 2nd Ed. Prentice Hall.

McLean, J.A. 1994. IPM in the forests of British Columbia, Canada. Forest Ecology and Management 65: 3-9.

Orbay, L., McLean, J.A., Sauder, B.J., and Cottell, P.L. 1994. Economic losses resulting from ambrosia beetle infestation of sawlogs in coastal British Columbia, Canada. Can. J. For. Res. 24: 1266-1276.

Pojar, J. and D. Meidinger. 1991. Chapter 3: British Columbia: The Environmental Setting. In: Special Report Series 6 Ecosystems of British Columbia. D. Meidinger and J. Pojar, Eds. Research Branch, B.C. Ministry of Forests, Victoria, B.C. pp. 59-60. Available on-line at:

Ruth, D.S. 1980. A guide to insect pests in Douglas-fir seed orchards. Envir. Can., Can. For. Serv., Rep # BC-X-204. 19 pp.

Ruth, D.S., Miller, G.E., Sutherland, J.R. 1982. A guide to common insect pests and diseases in spruce seed orchards in B.C. Envir. Can. For. Serv. Rep. # BC-X-231. 28 pp.

Society of American Foresters. 1971. Terminology of Forest Science, Technology Practice and Products. Edited by F.C. Ford-Robertson. The Multilingual Forestry Terminology Series No.1. Washington, D.C. 349 pp.

Sutherland, J.R., Miller, T., Quinard, R.S. 1987. Cone and Seed Diseases of North American Conifers. North American Forestry Commission Publication Number 1. Victoria, BC, Canada. 77pp.

Sutherland, J.R., Van Eerden, E. 1980. Diseases and insect pests in B.C. forest nurseries. B.C. Min. For., Can. For. Serv. Joint Rep. # 12.

Swift, K., J. Turner and L. Rankin. 2002. Cariboo Forest Region, Part 1 of 3: Forest Health Stand Establishment Decision Aids. B.C. Journal of Ecosystems and Management 2(1): 13-18.

Wood, C. 1986. Distribution maps of common tree diseases of British Columbia. Pac. For. Centre. Inf. Rep. BC-X-281. 68 pp.


Additional internet resources:

BC Ministry of Forests:

Forest Practices Branch- Home:

Forest Practices Branch- Silviculture Practices Section- Forest Health Unit:

Forest Range and Practices Act:

Legislation & Regulations pertaining to forestry:


A listing of Forest Pathology related websites:

USDA Forest Service- Forest Health Protection website:

USDA Forest Service Pacific Northwest Region Office:


Forest Health in BC
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