Table of Contents




Fig. 1. Health factors in BC forests

Major forest health factor groupings

Tree species & biogeoclimatic zones

Forest health factor codes

TABLE 1. Commercial tree species
TABLE 2. Biogeoclimatic zones
TABLE 3. FHF field codes
TABLE 4. FHF incidences in BGC zones


Major info sources for ID of FHFs
TABLE 5. Symptoms of FHFs
TABLE 6. Wood damaging insects

Fig. 2. Wood boring beetles


Management responsibilities

The new FRPA

Defined Forest Area Management

Annual surveys of frst health

Bark beetle management

Use of pesticides


General references

Additional internet resources





Some major information sources for identification of FHFs

Over the last decade a series of very useful publications have been prepared to aid in the identification of FHFs. The web-based resources that you might find most useful include:

Field Guide to Forest Damage in British Columbia, 2nd Edition, by J. Henigman, T. Ebata, E. Allen, J. Westfall and A. Pollard.
March 2001. BC Ministry of Forests/Canadian Forest Service Joint Publication No. 17. Victoria B.C. 370 pp.
This is a very useful identification guide, available online at:
It is available both as the online version, and also as a handbook designed to be carried in the field and provide a valuable on-site resource. The volume has been prepared with one forest health factor per page in a ring binder format, back-to-back for ease of replacement with updates, and is printed in colour, on waterproof paper. Hard copies can be purchased through Crown Publications at:

On the website of the Pacific Forestry Centre of the Canadian Forestry Service there are two very useful online resources:

HForest: Hypermedia Forest Insect and Disease Knowledge Base and Diagnosis by A. Thompson, D, Shaykewich and R. Banfield.
Damage agent information can be assessed by way of common name or scientific name, by signs and symptoms in a problem diagnosis function, or by host tree. Acrobat Reader (PDF) versions of the well-respected Forest Pest Leaflet Series are also linked to by HForest. This resource is available at:

Diseases and Insects in British Columbia Forest Seedling Nurseries by A. Thompson, J. Dennis, D. Trotter, D. Shaykewich and R. Banfield.
This resource provides similar capabilities for assessing nursery insect and disease pests. Available at:

Tree Doctor by D. Corrin, N.E. Alexander, A. Speed and T. Ebata.
This comprehensive guide to forest health factors was developed at Malaspina College and may be downloaded from the Forest Practices Branch Training initiatives website, free of charge. This program installs on a personal computer as two files with total size 111 MB when unzipped ( = 3.06MB, = 108 MB). Tree Doctor is a very comprehensive undertaking that covers pest information, diagnostics, a rich series of images, hazard and risk to the host tree and ecological subzone level and free growing survey support. Management guidelines link directly to the Forest Practices Code (FPC) Guidebooks. A glossary based on PesTerms (Doliner and Borden, 1984) is also included. Available at:

FETCH 21 (Forest Entomology Textbook CHallenge for the 21st Century) is supported online at UBC Forestry. This site has a hypertext manual that describes the insects normally covered in the UBC undergraduate Forest Entomology course. It also includes a series of links, indexed by feeding guilds, to guide interested readers to Forest Practices Code Guidebooks and to many interesting web sites around the world. Available at:

Stand Establishment Decision Aids (SEDAs) by K. Swift, J. Turner and L. Rankin are under development by FORREX (Swift et al. 2002). SEDAs draw on many of the resources cited above, especially Tree Doctor and the FPC Guidebooks. SEDAs contain information on biological information to aid practitioners in making silvicultural decisions on site limiting factors such as competing vegetation or forest health. See:

Also see:

Table 5: Some general symptoms and signs of damage to trees and possible causative forest health factors as seen at ground level.

Table 6: Characterizing features of wood damaging insects: ambrosia beetles, longhorned borers and flatheaded borers.

See also major texts listed in the REFERENCES.

Forest Health Factors
Forest Health in BC
FETCH21 Home Page