Table of Contents




Fig. 1. Health factors in BC forests

Major forest health factor groupings

Tree species & biogeoclimatic zones

Forest health factor codes

TABLE 1. Commercial tree species
TABLE 2. Biogeoclimatic zones
TABLE 3. FHF field codes
TABLE 4. FHF incidences in BGC zones


Major info sources for ID of FHFs
TABLE 5. Symptoms of FHFs
TABLE 6. Wood damaging insects

Fig. 2. Wood boring beetles


Management responsibilities

The new FRPA

Defined Forest Area Management

Annual surveys of frst health

Bark beetle management

Use of pesticides


General references

Additional internet resources



Forest Pest Management



Much of the annual harvesting of timber in B.C. is determined by insects, the most notable of which are the bark beetles that attack pines, spruces, Douglas-fir and subalpine fir. These insects compete directly with foresters for the mature trees that yield the major timber volumes as felling is directed into infested stands in an effort to utilize as much of this timber as possible. In addition, their role as natural disturbance factors leads to unplanned major changes in forested landscapes. In 2002, a major outbreak of the mountain pine beetle in lodgepole pine forests of central B.C. extended over more than nine million hectares affecting 108 million m3 of timber worth more than $9 billion. Some licensees presently carry out their whole annual harvesting in beetle-infested stands.

While bark beetles are the spectacular and obvious symptoms in an affected forest, the root rots and other diseases also have a serious impact on the mature forest as well as determining the options for reestablishment of the new forest. Armillaria ostoyae is of major significance in the southern and central parts of B.C., Phellinus weirii in coastal B.C. and Inonotus tomentosus in the spruce dominated ecosystems of northern B.C. Insects and diseases impact all aspects of our forest management from seedling establishment through to maintenance of old growth areas. Cone and seed insects and pathogens can greatly reduce seed production and in so doing greatly reduce the return on high investment, superior, genetically improved crosses. In the wood damaging category, ambrosia beetles excavate darkly stained galleries in the sapwood and thereby degrade lumber values. In high grade sawlogs, these losses are in the range of $70 to $80 per m3 (Orbay et al. 1993). In coastal B.C. this represents an annual loss of $44 million. In addition, bark and wood boring insects are important quarantine problems in export markets.

The objectives of this chapter are to provide an introduction and general overview of the topic of forest pest management in B.C. Insects, diseases, abiotic factors and animal damage that affect the forest are currently termed forest health factors (FHFs). In this chapter we provide concise practical summaries for certain aspects of forest health and guide you to the best available information on most forest health factor problem situations you might encounter in the field.



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